kristiantin

Juli 15, 2011

words formation

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VOCABULARY I

WORD CLASSES and WORD FORMATION

 

 

 

ARRANGED BY

DEWI AGUS KRISTIANTIN

NIM : 2792

MAHASARASWATI UNIVERSITY DENPASAR  ENGLISH CLASS 

 

 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

 

Assalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatu,

Om swastiastu,

Salom,

 

 

Dear readers,

 

Thank you for  GOD  to let me finished this paper as well in the inquire time. Also say thank  to our Vocabulary lecturer, for the change given to me so I have more knowledge in the detail of word classes and word formation which I’ve analized clearly.

 

This paper of “ Word Classes and Word Formation “ have arranged for get the Vocabulary Lesson assignment completely. Regarding the study of the subjects I did are from many references, I can summery it in this paper as you can read here. In addition, I do apologize in unclear or any mistakes for my study that have arranged in this paper. Thank you very much.

 

 

 

 

Best regard,

 

 

Dewi Agus Kristiantin


LIST OF ENTRIES

 

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………..2

List of entries…………………………………………………………..3

 

I.                  Word Classes

A.         Noun……………………………………….……………….4

B.         Verb………………………………………………….……..6

C.         Adjective……………………………………………………8

 

II.                Word Formation

A.         Suffixes……………………………….……………………10

B.         Prefixes……………………………….……………………14

 

Reference………………………………………………………………..25


WORD CLASSES

 

 

A.    NOUN

 

Noun is a word that is the name of a thing, an idea, a place, or a person.

 

There are some functions of noun :

a.         Subject of verbs               : Mr. Irit brings my bag.

b.         Object of verbs                : They painted the wall.

c.         Object of prepositions      : Mr. Balik comes here by taxi.

d.        Complement                     : We are doctors.

 

There are also two kinds of noun :

a.         Concrete noun                 : diamond, waltz, tax, ect.

b.         Abstract noun                  : death, life, weakness, etc.

 

These are some examples of noun :

a.         Countable nouns

 

1.  Lady                 : a polite way of saying ‘woman’, especially when you   are  referring to an older woman.

2.   Girl                   : a young woman.

3.  Piano                 : a large musical instrument that you play by pressing down black and white keys.

4.   Photo                : a picture that is taken with a camera

5.    Stone               : a hard solid substance that is found in the ground.

6.   Rascal           : a person, especially a child, who shows a lack of respect for other people and enjoys playing tricks on them

7.    Children           : a young boy or girl who is not yet an adult.

8.    Men                 : a plural of man

9.    Mice                 :  like rats, are members of the rodent family.

10.                                                        Goose           :  the large white bird that is like a duck, but bigger. Geese are kept on farms for their meat and eggs.

11.      Spectacle       :  something that is impressive or shocking to look at.

12.      People                       :  more than one person.

13.                                                   Louse          :  a small insect that lives on the bodies of animals and  people

14.                                                   Mining            : the process or industry of getting minerals, metals, etc. out of the ground by digging.

15.                                                   Froth  : a mass of small white bubbles on the top of a liquid, etc.

16.                                                   Volley            : a number of stones, bullets, etc. that are thrown or shot at the same time.

17.                                                  Wad    : a large number of papers, paper money, etc. folded or rolled together.

18.                                                   Zest    : a feeling of enjoyment, excitement and enthusiasm.

19.                                                   Zip      : a device for fastening clothes, bags, etc.

20.                                                   Device            : a clever method for getting the result you want.

 

b.            Uncountable nouns

 

1.                                       sugar                       : a sweet substance that you get from certain plants.

2.                                                            Water            : the clear liquid that falls as rain and is in rivers or lakes.

3.                                                            Furniture      : he things that can be moved, for example tables,   chairs, etc

4.                                       Money                     : the means of paying or buying for something.

5.                                       Air               :  the space around and above things.

6.                                                            Sand              : a powder consisting of very small grains of rock, found in deserts and on beaches

7.                                       Ice               : water that has frozen and become solid.

8.                                                            Education        :  the teaching or training of people.

9.                                                             Snow           : small, soft, white pieces of frozen water that fall from the     sky in cold weather

10.                                                        Music            : an arrangement of sounds in patterns to be sung or played on instruments

11.                                   Work                       :  the job that you do.

12.                                   Teaching                 : the work of a teacher.

13.                                                        Mercy           :  kindness shown by something who has the power to make something suffer.

14.                                   Equipment  :  the things that are needed to do a particular activity.

15.                                   Marriage                  :  the state of being husband and wife.

16.                                   Flesh                       :  the soft part of body that is soft and can be eaten.

17.                                   Absence                  :  the fact of something not being there; lack.

18.                                   Childhood   :  the time when you are a child.

19.                                                        Design        :  the way in which something is planned and made or arranged.

20.                                   Failure                     :  lack of success.

21.                                   Luck                        :  success or good things that happen by chance.

22.                                   Pleasure                   :  the feeling of being happy or satisfied.

23.                                   Truth                       :  the state or quality of being true.

24.                                   Confidence :  the feeling that you are sure about your own abilities.

25.                                                  Welfare           :  the general health, happiness of a person, an animal or a group

26.                                   Existence                :  a way of living, especially when it is difficult.

27.                                                        Patience        :  the quality of being able to stay calm and not get angry.

28.                                   Depression  :  a feeling of unhappiness that lasts for a long time.

29.                                                        Courage     :  the ability to control fear in a situation that may be dangerous or unpleasant

30.                                   Faith                        : strong belief ; trust.

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.    VERB

 

Verb is a word or group of words that is used to indicate that something happens or exists.

There are some examples of verb :

 

a.       Regular verbs

 

1.  Live                  : to pass or spend your life in a certain way.

2.  Cry                    : to make a noise and produce tears in your eyes.

3.  Push                : to use force to move something forward or away from you.

4.  Talk                   :  to speak in order to give information or to express feelings, ideas, etc.

5.  Announce         : to make something known publicly and officially.

6.  Appoint                        : to choose somebody for a job or position.

7.  Yell                   : to shout very loudly because you are angry or in pain.

8.  Shout                : to speak or cry out in a very loud voice.

9.                                                             Scream          : to cry out loudly in a high voice because you are afraid.

10.                                                         Testify         : to make a formal statement that something is true, especially in a court of law.

11.                                                         Wish            : to want something that cannot now happen or that probably will not happen.

12.      Hope             : to want something to happen or be true.

13.                                                         Impose        : to ask or expect somebody to do something that may cause extra work or trouble

14.     Suppose         : to think that something is probable

15.      Water                        :  to fill with liquid.

16.                                                         Suffer          : experience something unpleasant, for example pain, sadness, difficulty, etc.

17.                                                         Stoop         : to bend your head and shoulders forwards and downwards

18.      Spoil             : to change sth good into sth bad, unpleasant, useless.

19.      Settle             : to put an end to an argument or disagreement.

20.                                                         Rub               : to move your hand, a cloth, etc. backwards and forwards on the surface of something while pressing firmly

21.      Rob               : to take something away illegally.

22.      Require         : to officially demand or order something.

23.      Request         : to ask for something politely.

24.                                                         Ask              : to put a question to sb in order to find out some information

25.     Common        : to share something with somebody or something else.

 

b.         Irregular verbs

 

1.                                                      Abide  : to obey a law, etc.; to do what somebody has decided.

2.                                                      Dwell  : to live or stay in a place.

3.                                                      Leave  : to go away from somebody or something.

4.                                                      Arise    : to begin to exist; to appear.

5.                                                      Awake : to wake up; to make somebody wake up

6.                                                      Wake   : to stop sleeping; to make somebody stop sleeping.

7.                                                      Build   : to make sth by putting pieces, materials, etc. together.

8.                                                      Grow   : to increase in size or number; to develop into an adult form

9.                                                      Withstand       : to be strong enough not to break, give up, be damaged, etc

10.                                                  Withhold         : to refuse to give something to somebody.

11.                                                  Withdraw        : to move or order sb to move back or away from a place.

12.                                                  Weep   : to let tears fall because of strong emotion; to cry.

13.                                                  Weave : to change direction often when you are moving so that you are not stopped by anything

14.                                                  Undergo          : to have a difficult or unpleasant experience.

15.                                                  Thrust  : to push somebody or something suddenly or violently; to move quickly and suddenly in a particular direction

16.                                                  Tell      : to give information to somebody by speaking or writing.

17.                                                  Tear     : to damage something by pulling it apart or into pieces; to become damaged in this way.

18.                                                  Profess            : to say that something is true or correct, even when it is not

19.                                                  String  : to make people or things form a line with spaces between each person or thing

20.                                                  Strike   : to attack and harm somebody or something suddenly.

21.                                                  Hit       : to make sudden, violent contact with somebody or something.

22.                                                  Say      : to speak or tell somebody something, using words

23.                                                  Shrink  : to move back because you are frightened or shocked.

24.                                                  Shed    : to get rid of or remove something that is not wanted.

25.                                                  Spill     : to accidentally come out of a container; to make a liquid, etc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.   ADJECTIVE

 

 

Adjective is a word that tells you more about noun.

 

Adjective’s functions :

a.

      Subject + to be + adjective

Example : That beautiful girl is an active  student.

Explain of nouns

b.      Explain of pronouns

c.       Predicate complement

 

There are some examples of adjective :

 

1.                                                            Clever           : able to learn, understand or do something quickly and easily; intelligent

2.                                Diligent          : showing care and effort in your work or duties.

3.                                Genius                        : very great and unusual ability.

4.                                Stupid                        : not intelligent or sensible.

5.                                idiot                : a very stupid person

6.                                Beautiful        : very pretty or attractive.

7.                                Pretty             : quite; fairly.

8.                                Ugly               : unpleasant to look at or listen to; not attractive

9.                                Active                        : involved in activity; lively.

10.                            Placid             : calm and not easily excited.

11.                            Interesting      : enjoyable and entertaining; holding your attention.

12.                            Attractive       : hat pleases or interests you; that you like.

13.                            Sleepy                        : tired and ready to go to sleep.

14.                            Charming       : very pleasing or attractive.

15.                            Savoury          : having a taste that is not sweet.

16.                            Plain               : completely clear.

17.                            Smelly                        : having a bad smell.

18.                            Boring                        : not at all interesting; dull: a boring.

19.                            Crazy              : very silly or foolish.

20.                                                        Shrewd         : able to make good decisions because you understand a   situation well

21.                                                        Practical       : concerned with actually doing something rather than with ideas or thought

22.                            Dangerous      : likely to cause injury or damage

23.                                                        Mysterious   : keeping something secret or refusing to explain something.

24.                            Marvelous      : very good; wonderful

25.                            Nervous          : worried or afraid

26.                                                        Ubiquitous   : seeming to be everywhere or in several places at the same time; very common

27.                            Desirable        : wanted, often by many people; worth having.

28.                            Good              : of a high quality or standard

29.                                                        Wanton        : done in order to hurt sb or damage sth for no good   reason.

30.                                                        Disappointed  : because you/something did not succeed or because sth was not as good, interesting, etc

31.                            Contrary         : completely different; opposite.

32.                            Cold               : having a low temperature; not hot or warm.

33.                                                        Fluent        : able to speak or write a foreign language easily and accurately

34.                            Shy                 : frightened to do or to become involved in something.

35.                            Sharp              : able to think, act, understand, see or hear quickly.

36.                            Wonderful      : extremely good; fantastic.

37.                                                        Timeless       : that does not seem to be changed by time or affected by changes in fashion

38.                            Sick                : not well; ill

39.                            Ill                    : bad or harmful

40.                            Late                : near the end of a period of time

41.                                                        Hurt               : upset and offended by something that somebody has said or done

42.                            Fishy              : seeming suspicious or dishonest.

43.                            Hard               : difficult to do or understand; not easy.

44.                            Necessary       : that is needed for a purpose or a reason.

45.                            Canine                        : connected with dogs.

46.                                                        Delicate        : easy to damage or break; frequently ill or hurt; light and pleasant; not strong;          needing skilful treatment and care.

47.                                                        Fabulous       : very good; excellent.

48.                                                        Haggard       : looking tired or worried.

49.                                                        Idle   : not wanting to work hard; lazy.

50.                                                        Midway        : in the middle of a period of time or between two places.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WORD FORMATION

 

There are some kinds of word formation such as SUFFIXES and PREFIXES.

 

A.             SUFFIX

 

Suffixes is a letter or group of letters that you add at the end of a word, and that changes the meaning of the word or the way it is used can change the word-class and the meaning of the word.

 

A Handful of Suffixes

 

Suffix

Meaning

Examples

able, ible able to be, capable of being pourable, drinkable, readable, washable, curable, visible, flexible, collectible
ance, ancy state of, process of performance, reliance, defiance, radiance, acceptance, ascendancy, discrepancy, infancy
Dom condition, office, state kingdom, freedom, wisdom, sheikdom, fiefdom, sheikdom
Ee one who receives payee, mortgagee, employee, appointee, abductee, examinee, referee, refugee
er, or one who does [the verb] driver, hiker, reader, manager, polisher, speaker, counselor, author, creator, director, sculptor
Ful filled with frightful, delightful, wonderful, cupful, wakeful, bashful, bountiful, beautiful, cheerful, colorful, dreadful, fateful
Ify to make into purify, deify, simplify, clarify, petrify
Ification process of making into purification, deification, simplifiction, clarification, petrification
Ish the nature of, resembling Cornish, Irish, bookish, freakish, foolish, boorish, selfish, sluggish, priggish
ism doctrine, system, characteristic quality capitalism, heroism, optimism, skepticism, realism, patriotism, communism, idealism, conservatism
ist one who performs; an adherent of an ism tympanist, cellist, idealist, communist, realist, moralist, pharamacist, pragmatist
ize to make into rationalize, normalize, realize, capitalize
ization the process of making into rationalization, normalization, realization, capitalization
less Without loveless, fearless, worthless, nameless, baseless, bottomless, effortless, friendless, noiseless, harmless

 

 

a.         common noun suffixes :

ü  noun + er/or are used for the person who do an activity or a particular job.

For example :

1.      Projector          : a piece of equipment that projects pictures or films   onto a screen or wall

2.      Hiker                    : person who spending the time for hiking

3.      Sculptor                : a person who makes figures or objects

4.      Counselor              : a person whose job is to give advice

5.      Grater                    : a kitchen tool that is used for cutting food  into small pieces by rubbing it across its rough surface

 

ü  noun + er/ee can contrast with each other meaning (person who does something/receives or experiences the action).

For example :

1.                                    Employer      : a person or company that employs other people

2.                                    Employee        : a person who works for somebody.

3.                                    Sender                   : a person who sends something.

4.                                    Payee              : a person that money, especially a cheque, is paid to                        :

 

ü  t(ion) is used to make nouns from verbs.

For example :

1.                                                            Complication  : something that makes a situation  hard to understand or   to deal with

2.            Redemption : the action of being saved from evil.

3.            Alteration     : a small change in something.

4.                                                            Donation       : money, etc. that is given to a person or an organization such as a charity, in order to help people or animals in need

5.                                                            Admission    : the amount of money that you have to pay to enter a place.

 

ü  ist/ism are used for people’s politics, ideology, or profession.

For example :

1.      Marxism       : the political and economic thought of Karl Marx

2.      Journalism    : the profession of collecting and writing about news in newspapers and magazines or talking about it on the television or radio

3.      Anarchist      :

4.      Physicist       : a person who studies or is an expert in physics.

5.      Terrorist        :

 

ü  ness is used to make nouns from adjectives.

For example :

1.      Goodness              : the quality of being good

2.      Readiness              : the state of being ready or prepared.

3.      Forgetfulness        :

4.      Weakness              : a fault or lack of strength.

5.      Happiness              :

 

 

b.        adjective suffix :

ü verbs + able/ible means “can be done “.

For example :

1.      Drinkable  : can be drunk

2.      Washable   : that can be washed without being damaged.

3.      edible        : can be eaten

4.      flexible      : can be bent

5.      forgivable  : that can be forgiven.

6.      visible        : that can be seen or noticed

 

c.                         verbs

ü   ise/ize makes verbs from adjectives.

For example :

1.      Modernize      : to make something suitable for use today using new methods, styles, etc.

2.      Commercialise  : to try to make money out of something, even if it means spoiling it

3.      Industrialise       : to develop industries in a country.

4.      Organize            : to plan or arrange an event, activity, etc.

5.      Rationalize         : [I, T] to find reasons that explain why you have done sth (perhaps because you do not like the real reason)

2[T] to make a business or a system better organized

 

d.        other suffixes that can help you recognize the word class :

ü  ment (nouns)

For example :

1.      Excitement         : the state of being excited, especially because something interesting is happening or will happen

2.      Replacement      : exchanging somebody/something for somebody/something that is better or newer

 

ü  ity (nouns)

For example :

1.      Productivity

2.      Scarcity

 

ü  hood (abstract nouns especially family terms)

For example :

1.        Motherhood       : the state of being a mother.

2.        Neighborhood    : a particular part of a town and the people who live there.

3.        Childhood          : the time when you are a child.

 

ü        ship (abstract nouns especially status)

Foe example :

1.      Partnership         : he state of being a partner in business.

2.      Membership       : the people who belong to a group, organization, etc.

 

ü  ive (adjective)

For example :

1.      Passive         : used about the form of a verb or a sentence when the subject of the sentence is affected by the action of the verb

2.      Reductive     :

 

ü  al (adjectives)

For example :

1.      Brutal                 : very cruel and/or violent.

2.      Legal                   : allowed by law.

3.      Refusal           : saying or showing that you will not do, give or accept something.

 

ü  ous (adjectives)

For example :

1.      Outrageous   : that makes you very angry or shocked.

2.      Furious         : very angry.

 

ü  ful (adjectives)

For example :

1.      Hopeful        : making you think that something good will happen

2.      Useful          : having some practical use; helpful.

 

ü  less (adjectives)

For example :

1.      Harmless     : not able or not likely to cause damage or injury; safe

2.      Cloudless    : clear; without any clouds.

 

ü  ify (verbs)

For example :

1.      Purify        : to remove dirty or harmful substances from something.

2.      Terrify       : to frighten somebody very much.

 

 

 

B.             PREFIX

 

Prefixes is a letter or group of letters that you put at the beginning of a word to change its meaning

.

 

Root or Prefix

Meaning

Examples

a, an not, without atheist, anarchy, anonymous apathy, aphasia, anemia, atypical, anesthesia
ab away from absent, abduction, aberrant, abstemious, abnormal, abstract, absorb
acro high, tip, top acrobat, acrophobia, acronym, acromegaly
ad to, toward admit, addition, advertisement, adherent, admonish, address, adhesive, adept, adjust
alt High altitude, altimiter, alto, contralto, altocumulus
ambul to walk ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist, perambulate, preamble
ante Before anteroom, antebellum, antedate antecedent, antediluvian
anti, ant against, opposite antisocial, antiseptic, antithesis, antibody, antichrist, antinomies, antifreeze, antipathy, antigen, antibiotic, antidote, antifungal, antidepressant
audi to hear audience, auditory, audible, auditorium, audiovisual, audition, audiobook
auto Self automobile, automatic, autograph, autonomous, autoimmune, autopilot, autobiography
be thoroughly bedecked, besmirch, besprinkled, begrudge, begrime, belie, bemoan
bell War belligerent, antebellum, bellicose, rebel
bene good, well benefactor, beneficial, benevolent, benediction, beneficiary, benefit
bi Two bicycle, bifocals, biceps, billion, binary, bivalve, bimonthly, bigamy, bimetal, biathlete, bicarbonate
cede, ceed, cess to go, to yield succeed, proceed, precede, recede, secession, exceed, succession, excess
chron Time chronology, chronic, chronicle, chronometer, anachronism
cide, cis to kill, to cut fratricide, suicide, incision, excision, circumcision, precise, concise, precision
circum Around circumnavigate, circumflex, circumstance, circumcision, circumference, circumorbital, circumlocution, circumvent, circumscribe, circulatory
clud, clus claus to close include, exclude, clause, claustrophobia, enclose, exclusive, reclusive, conclude, preclude
con, com with, together convene, compress, contemporary, converge, compact, confluence, concatenate, conjoin, combine, convert, compatible, consequence
contra, counter against, opposite contradict, counteract, contravene, contrary, counterspy, contrapuntal, contraband
cred to believe credo, credible, credence, credit, credential, credulity, incredulous, creed, incredible
commun to share commune, community, communism, communicable, communication, commonality, incommunicado
cycl circle, wheel bicycle, cyclical, cycle, encliclical, motorcycle, tricycle, cyclone
de from, down, away detach, deploy, derange, deodorize, devoid, deflate, degenerate, deice, descend, derail, depress, depart, decompose, destruction
dei, div God, god divinity, divine, deity, divination, deify
demo people democracy, demagogue, epidemic, demographic
dia through, across, between diameter, diagonal, dialogue, dialect, dialectic, diagnosis, diachronic, diagram, diaphragm
dict speak predict, verdict, malediction, dictionary, dictate, dictum, diction, indict, contradict
dis, dys, dif away, not, negative dismiss, differ, disallow, disperse, dissuade, disconnect, dysfunction, disproportion, disrespect, distemper, distaste, disarray, dyslexia
duc, duct to lead, pull produce, abduct, product, transducer, viaduct, aqueduct, induct, deduct, reduce, induce
dyn, dyna power dynamic, dynamometer, heterodyne, dynamite, dynamo, dynasty
ecto outside, external ectomorph, ectoderm, ectoplasm, ectopic, ectothermal
endo inside, withing endotoxin, endoscope, endogenous
equi equal equidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equinox, equitable, equation, equator
e, ex out, away, from emit, expulsion, exhale, exit, express, exclusive, enervate, exceed, explosion
exter, extra outside of external, extrinsic, exterior, extraordinary, extrabiblical, extracurricular, extrapolate, extraneous, exterminator, extract, extradite, extraterrestrial, extrasensory, extravagant, extreme
flu, flux flow effluence, influence, effluvium, fluctuate, confluence, reflux, influx
flect, flex to bend flexible, reflection, deflect, circumflex, inflection, reflex
graph, gram to write polygraph, grammar, biography, graphite, telegram, autograph, lithograph, historiography, graphic, electrocardiogram, monogram
hetero other heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterodyne
homo same homogenized, homosexual, homonym, homophone
hyper over, above hyperactive, hypertensive, hyperbolic, hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperkinetic, hyperlink, hypertext, hypersonic, hypertrophy
hypo below, less than hypotension, hypodermic, hypoglycemia, hypoallergenic, hypothermia, hypothesis
in, im not inviolate, innocuous, intractable, innocent, impregnable, impossible
infra beneath infrared, infrastructure, infrasonic
inter, intro between international, intercept, intermission, interoffice, internal, intermittent, introvert, introduce
intra within, into intranet, intracranial, intravenous, intramural, intramuscular, intraocular
jac, ject to throw reject, eject, project, trajectory, interject, dejected, inject, ejaculate
mal bad, badly malformation, maladjusted, dismal, malady, malcontent, malfeasance, maleficent, malevolent, malice, malaria, malfunction, malignant
mega great, million megaphone, megalomaniac, megabyte, megalopolis
meso middle mesomorph, mesoamerica, mesosphere
meta beyond, change metaphor, metamorphosis, metabolism, metahistorical, metainformation, metacognitive
meter measure perimeter, micrometer, ammeter, multimeter, altimeter, geometry, kilometer
micro small microscope, microprocessor, microfiche, micrometer, micrograph
mis bad, badly misinform, misinterpret, mispronounce, misnomer, mistake, misogynist
mit, miss to send transmit, permit, missile, missionary, remit, admit, missive, mission
morph shape polymorphic, morpheme, amorphous, metamorphosis, morphology, morphing
multi many multitude, multipartite, multiply, multipurpose, multicolored, multimedia, multinational
neo new neologism, neonate, neoclassic, neophyte
non not nonferrous, nonabrasive, nondescript, nonfat, nonfiction, nonprofit, nonsense, nonentity
omni all omnipotent, omnivorous, omniscient, omnibus, omnirange, omnipresent
para beside paraprofessional, paramedic, paraphrase, parachute, paralegal, parallel, comparison
per through, intensive permit, perspire, perforate, persuade, perceive, perfect, permit, perform
peri around periscope, perimeter, perigee, periodontal
phon sound telephone, phonics, phonograph, phonetic, homophone, microphone
phot light photograph, photosynthesis, photon
poly many polytheist, polygon, polygamy, polymorphous
port to carry porter, portable, report, transportation, deport, import, export
re back, again report, realign, retract, revise, regain, reflect, rename, restate, recombine, recalculate, redo
retro backwards retrorocket, retrospect, retrogression, retroactive
sanct holy sanctify, sanctuary, sanction, sanctimonious, sacrosanct
scrib, script to write inscription, prescribe, proscribe, manuscript, conscript, scribble, scribe
sect, sec cut intersect, transect, dissect, secant, section
semi half semifinal, semiconscious, semiannual, semimonthly, semicircle
spect to look inspect, spectator, circumspect, retrospect, prospect, spectacle
sub under, below submerge, submarine, substandard, subnormal, subvert, subdivision, submersible, submit
super, supra above superior, suprarenal, superscript, supernatural, supercede, superficial, superhero, superimpose
syn together synthesis, synchronous, syndicate, synergy, snyopsis, syncretism
tele distance, from afar television, telephone, telegraph, telemetry, telepathy
theo, the God theology, theist, polytheist, pantheism, atheist
therm, thermo heat thermal, thermometer, thermocouple, thermodynamic, thermoelectric
tract to drag, draw attract, tractor, traction, extract, retract, protract, detract, subtract, contract, intractable
trans across transoceanic, transmit, transport, transducer
un not uncooked, unharmed, unintended, unhappy
veh, vect to carry vector, vehicle, convection, vehement
vert, vers to turn convert, revert, advertise, versatile, vertigo, invert, reversion, extravert, introvert
vita life vital, vitality, vitamins, revitalize


Number Prefixes

Prefix Meaning Examples
mono, uni one monopoly, monotype, monologue, mononucleosis, monorail, monotheist, unilateral, universal, unity, unanimous, uniform
bi, di two divide, diverge, diglycerides, bifurcate, biweekly, bivalve, biannual, billion
tri three triangle, trinity, trilateral, triumvirate, tribune, trilogy, tricycle, trillion
quat, quad four quadrangle, quadruplets, quaternary, quarter, quadrillion
quint, penta five quintet, quintuplets, pentagon, pentane, pentameter, quintillion
hex, ses, sex six hexagon, hexameter, sestet, sextuplets, sextillion
sept seven septet, septennial, septillion
oct eight octopus, octagon, octogenarian, octave, octillion
non nine nonagon, nonagenarian, nonillion
dec ten decimal, decade, decalogue, decimate, decillion
cent hundred centennial, century, centipede, centillion
mill, kilo thousand (10^3) millennium, kilobyte, kiloton
mega million (10^6) megabyte, megaton, megaflop
giga billion (10^9) gigabyte, gigaflop
tera trillion (10^12) terabyte, teraflop
peta quadrillion (10^15) Petabyte
exa quintillion (10^18) Exabyte
zetta sextillion (10^21) Zettabyte
yotta septilion (10^24) Yottabyte
milli thousandth (10^-3) millisecond, milligram, millivolt
micro millionth (10^-6) microgram, microvolt
nano billionth (10^-9) nanosecond, nanobucks
pico trillionth (10^-12) picofarad, picocurie
femto quadrillionth (10^-15) Femtosecond
atto quintillionth (10^-18) attosecond, attometer
zepto sextillionth (10^-21) Zeptosecond
yocto septillionth (10^-24) Yoctosecond

 

a.         prefix + adjective becomes a negative meaning.

ü  Un

1.      Unjust           : not fair or deserved.

2.      Unhappy       : not satisfied or pleased.

ü  Im

1.      Immature         : not fully grown or developed.

2.      Impatient         : not able to stay calm and wait for sth.

3.                                                            Impartial      : not supporting one person or group more than another; fair

4.      Improbable      : not likely to be true or to happen.

 

ü  Il

1.      Illegible           :. difficult or impossible to read.

2.      Illiterate           : not able to read or write OPP literate

ü  Ir

1.      Irreplaceable    : cannot be replaced.

2.      Irreversible      : cannot be stopped or changed.

ü  Dis

1.      Disloyal           : not supporting somebody, country, etc.

2.      Dishonest        : cannot trust.

ü  in

1.                                                            Internal         : only before a noun) of or on the inside (of a place, person or object) ; happening or existing inside a particular organization; an internal exam (= one arranged and marked inside a particular school or college) • an internal police inquiry; (used about political or economic affairs) inside a country; not abroad

2.      Insert               : put into or between two things

3.                                                            Income       : the money you receive regularly as payment for your work or as interest on money you have saved, etc.

4.      Inedible           : not suitable to be eaten.

 

b.                                                                              Prefix + verb to form the opposite of verbs; otherwise, it used to reverse      the action of the verb.

ü  Un

1.                                                            Undo           : to destroy the effect of something that has already happened

2.      Unfold                        : to open out something that was folded

3.                                                            Unveil          : to show something new to the public for the first time.

4.      Unzip              : pulling on the device

 

ü  dis

1.      Dismount        : to get off something that you ride

2.      Disappear        : impossible to see or to find

3.      Disprove          : something is not true.

 

c.         prefix + other verb for the specific meaning

ü  anti means against

1.      Anti-War         : against the war to be happen.

2.                                                            Antibiotic     : a medicine which is used for destroying bacteria and curing infections.

3.      Antisocial        : harmful or annoying to other people.

ü  auto means of or by oneself

1.      Autograph       : the signature of a famous person.

2.      Auto-Pilot       : automatic pilot.

3.                                                            Autobiography: the story of a person’s life written by that person

ü  bi  means two or twice

1.      Bicycle            : two wheels

2.      Bilingual          : having or using two languages.

3.      Biannual          : two years

 

ü  ex means former

1.      Ex-wife           : was form a wife of a husband.

2.      Ex-president    : was lead the republic.

 

ü  ex means out of

1.      Extract                        : take something out with difficult.

2.      Exhale             : breathe out the air, smoke, etc.

3.      Excommunicate

 

ü  Micro means small

1.                                                            Microwave   : a short electric wave that is used for sending radio messages and for cooking food

2.                                                            Microscopic  : too small to be seen without a microscope

 

ü  mono means one/ single

1.      Monotonous    : never changing and therefore boring.

2.                                                            Monologue    : a long speech by one person, for example in a play

3.                                                            Monopoly     :   he control of an industry or service by only one company; a type of goods or a service that is controlled in this way

4.                                                            monorail       : a railway in which the train runs on a single track, usually high above the ground

 

ü  Multi means many

1.      Multi-National : many national

2.      Multi-Racial    : many races

 

ü  over means too much

1.      Overdo                        : to use or do too much of something.

2.                                                            Oversleep     : to sleep longer than you should have done.

 

ü  post means after

1.      Postwar

2.                                                      Postgraduate           : a person who is doing further studies at a university after taking his/her first degree

3.      Post-Revolutionary

 

 

ü  pro means in favour of

1.                                                                              Pro-Revolutionary :  agreement to the person who starts or supports action to try to change the government of a country, especially by using violent action

2.                                                                              Proactive                   : controlling a situation by making things happen rather than waiting for things to happen and then reacting to them

 

ü  pseudo means false

1.      Pseudo-Scientific   : mistake in connected with or involving science

ü  re means again or back

1.      Rewind           : to make a video, tape go backwards

2.                                                            Reform           : to change a system, the law, etc. in order to make it better

 

ü  Semi means half

1.      Semicircular

2.                                                            Semi-Detached  : joined to another house with a shared wall on one side forming a pair of houses

 

ü  sub means under

1.      Subway              : a railway system under the ground.

2.                                                            Submarine    : a type of ship that can travel under the water as well as on the surface

3.                                                                  Submerge        : to go or make something go under water

 

ü  under means not enough

1.      Under-Worked : workless

2.      Underused      : not use enough

3.      Undercooked  : to not cook food for long enough.

 

ü  mis

1.      Misunderstand  : to understand something wrongly.

2.                                                                  Misinform   : to give somebody the wrong information.

3.      Misinterpret             : to understand something wrongly

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

1.     Harris, Robert. 13th October 1997. Word Roots and Prefixes. Virtual Salt.

2.     McCarthy and O’Dell. 2001. English Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

3.     Oxford Word-power  Genie.

4.     http://www.google.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

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