WORD CLASSES and WORD FORMATION
DEWI AGUS KRISTIANTIN
NIM : 2792
MAHASARASWATI UNIVERSITY DENPASAR ENGLISH CLASS
Assalamu alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatu,
Thank you for GOD to let me finished this paper as well in the inquire time. Also say thank to our Vocabulary lecturer, for the change given to me so I have more knowledge in the detail of word classes and word formation which I’ve analized clearly.
This paper of “ Word Classes and Word Formation “ have arranged for get the Vocabulary Lesson assignment completely. Regarding the study of the subjects I did are from many references, I can summery it in this paper as you can read here. In addition, I do apologize in unclear or any mistakes for my study that have arranged in this paper. Thank you very much.
Dewi Agus Kristiantin
LIST OF ENTRIES
List of entries…………………………………………………………..3
I. Word Classes
II. Word Formation
Noun is a word that is the name of a thing, an idea, a place, or a person.
There are some functions of noun :
a. Subject of verbs : Mr. Irit brings my bag.
b. Object of verbs : They painted the wall.
c. Object of prepositions : Mr. Balik comes here by taxi.
d. Complement : We are doctors.
There are also two kinds of noun :
a. Concrete noun : diamond, waltz, tax, ect.
b. Abstract noun : death, life, weakness, etc.
These are some examples of noun :
a. Countable nouns
1. Lady : a polite way of saying ‘woman’, especially when you are referring to an older woman.
2. Girl : a young woman.
3. Piano : a large musical instrument that you play by pressing down black and white keys.
4. Photo : a picture that is taken with a camera
5. Stone : a hard solid substance that is found in the ground.
6. Rascal : a person, especially a child, who shows a lack of respect for other people and enjoys playing tricks on them
7. Children : a young boy or girl who is not yet an adult.
8. Men : a plural of man
9. Mice : like rats, are members of the rodent family.
10. Goose : the large white bird that is like a duck, but bigger. Geese are kept on farms for their meat and eggs.
11. Spectacle : something that is impressive or shocking to look at.
12. People : more than one person.
13. Louse : a small insect that lives on the bodies of animals and people
14. Mining : the process or industry of getting minerals, metals, etc. out of the ground by digging.
15. Froth : a mass of small white bubbles on the top of a liquid, etc.
16. Volley : a number of stones, bullets, etc. that are thrown or shot at the same time.
17. Wad : a large number of papers, paper money, etc. folded or rolled together.
18. Zest : a feeling of enjoyment, excitement and enthusiasm.
19. Zip : a device for fastening clothes, bags, etc.
20. Device : a clever method for getting the result you want.
b. Uncountable nouns
1. sugar : a sweet substance that you get from certain plants.
2. Water : the clear liquid that falls as rain and is in rivers or lakes.
3. Furniture : he things that can be moved, for example tables, chairs, etc
4. Money : the means of paying or buying for something.
5. Air : the space around and above things.
6. Sand : a powder consisting of very small grains of rock, found in deserts and on beaches
7. Ice : water that has frozen and become solid.
8. Education : the teaching or training of people.
9. Snow : small, soft, white pieces of frozen water that fall from the sky in cold weather
10. Music : an arrangement of sounds in patterns to be sung or played on instruments
11. Work : the job that you do.
12. Teaching : the work of a teacher.
13. Mercy : kindness shown by something who has the power to make something suffer.
14. Equipment : the things that are needed to do a particular activity.
15. Marriage : the state of being husband and wife.
16. Flesh : the soft part of body that is soft and can be eaten.
17. Absence : the fact of something not being there; lack.
18. Childhood : the time when you are a child.
19. Design : the way in which something is planned and made or arranged.
20. Failure : lack of success.
21. Luck : success or good things that happen by chance.
22. Pleasure : the feeling of being happy or satisfied.
23. Truth : the state or quality of being true.
24. Confidence : the feeling that you are sure about your own abilities.
25. Welfare : the general health, happiness of a person, an animal or a group
26. Existence : a way of living, especially when it is difficult.
27. Patience : the quality of being able to stay calm and not get angry.
28. Depression : a feeling of unhappiness that lasts for a long time.
29. Courage : the ability to control fear in a situation that may be dangerous or unpleasant
30. Faith : strong belief ; trust.
Verb is a word or group of words that is used to indicate that something happens or exists.
There are some examples of verb :
a. Regular verbs
1. Live : to pass or spend your life in a certain way.
2. Cry : to make a noise and produce tears in your eyes.
3. Push : to use force to move something forward or away from you.
4. Talk : to speak in order to give information or to express feelings, ideas, etc.
5. Announce : to make something known publicly and officially.
6. Appoint : to choose somebody for a job or position.
7. Yell : to shout very loudly because you are angry or in pain.
8. Shout : to speak or cry out in a very loud voice.
9. Scream : to cry out loudly in a high voice because you are afraid.
10. Testify : to make a formal statement that something is true, especially in a court of law.
11. Wish : to want something that cannot now happen or that probably will not happen.
12. Hope : to want something to happen or be true.
13. Impose : to ask or expect somebody to do something that may cause extra work or trouble
14. Suppose : to think that something is probable
15. Water : to fill with liquid.
16. Suffer : experience something unpleasant, for example pain, sadness, difficulty, etc.
17. Stoop : to bend your head and shoulders forwards and downwards
18. Spoil : to change sth good into sth bad, unpleasant, useless.
19. Settle : to put an end to an argument or disagreement.
20. Rub : to move your hand, a cloth, etc. backwards and forwards on the surface of something while pressing firmly
21. Rob : to take something away illegally.
22. Require : to officially demand or order something.
23. Request : to ask for something politely.
24. Ask : to put a question to sb in order to find out some information
25. Common : to share something with somebody or something else.
b. Irregular verbs
1. Abide : to obey a law, etc.; to do what somebody has decided.
2. Dwell : to live or stay in a place.
3. Leave : to go away from somebody or something.
4. Arise : to begin to exist; to appear.
5. Awake : to wake up; to make somebody wake up
6. Wake : to stop sleeping; to make somebody stop sleeping.
7. Build : to make sth by putting pieces, materials, etc. together.
8. Grow : to increase in size or number; to develop into an adult form
9. Withstand : to be strong enough not to break, give up, be damaged, etc
10. Withhold : to refuse to give something to somebody.
11. Withdraw : to move or order sb to move back or away from a place.
12. Weep : to let tears fall because of strong emotion; to cry.
13. Weave : to change direction often when you are moving so that you are not stopped by anything
14. Undergo : to have a difficult or unpleasant experience.
15. Thrust : to push somebody or something suddenly or violently; to move quickly and suddenly in a particular direction
16. Tell : to give information to somebody by speaking or writing.
17. Tear : to damage something by pulling it apart or into pieces; to become damaged in this way.
18. Profess : to say that something is true or correct, even when it is not
19. String : to make people or things form a line with spaces between each person or thing
20. Strike : to attack and harm somebody or something suddenly.
21. Hit : to make sudden, violent contact with somebody or something.
22. Say : to speak or tell somebody something, using words
23. Shrink : to move back because you are frightened or shocked.
24. Shed : to get rid of or remove something that is not wanted.
25. Spill : to accidentally come out of a container; to make a liquid, etc
Adjective is a word that tells you more about noun.
Adjective’s functions :
Explain of nouns
b. Explain of pronouns
c. Predicate complement
There are some examples of adjective :
1. Clever : able to learn, understand or do something quickly and easily; intelligent
2. Diligent : showing care and effort in your work or duties.
3. Genius : very great and unusual ability.
4. Stupid : not intelligent or sensible.
5. idiot : a very stupid person
6. Beautiful : very pretty or attractive.
7. Pretty : quite; fairly.
8. Ugly : unpleasant to look at or listen to; not attractive
9. Active : involved in activity; lively.
10. Placid : calm and not easily excited.
11. Interesting : enjoyable and entertaining; holding your attention.
12. Attractive : hat pleases or interests you; that you like.
13. Sleepy : tired and ready to go to sleep.
14. Charming : very pleasing or attractive.
15. Savoury : having a taste that is not sweet.
16. Plain : completely clear.
17. Smelly : having a bad smell.
18. Boring : not at all interesting; dull: a boring.
19. Crazy : very silly or foolish.
20. Shrewd : able to make good decisions because you understand a situation well
21. Practical : concerned with actually doing something rather than with ideas or thought
22. Dangerous : likely to cause injury or damage
23. Mysterious : keeping something secret or refusing to explain something.
24. Marvelous : very good; wonderful
25. Nervous : worried or afraid
26. Ubiquitous : seeming to be everywhere or in several places at the same time; very common
27. Desirable : wanted, often by many people; worth having.
28. Good : of a high quality or standard
29. Wanton : done in order to hurt sb or damage sth for no good reason.
30. Disappointed : because you/something did not succeed or because sth was not as good, interesting, etc
31. Contrary : completely different; opposite.
32. Cold : having a low temperature; not hot or warm.
33. Fluent : able to speak or write a foreign language easily and accurately
34. Shy : frightened to do or to become involved in something.
35. Sharp : able to think, act, understand, see or hear quickly.
36. Wonderful : extremely good; fantastic.
37. Timeless : that does not seem to be changed by time or affected by changes in fashion
38. Sick : not well; ill
39. Ill : bad or harmful
40. Late : near the end of a period of time
41. Hurt : upset and offended by something that somebody has said or done
42. Fishy : seeming suspicious or dishonest.
43. Hard : difficult to do or understand; not easy.
44. Necessary : that is needed for a purpose or a reason.
45. Canine : connected with dogs.
46. Delicate : easy to damage or break; frequently ill or hurt; light and pleasant; not strong; needing skilful treatment and care.
47. Fabulous : very good; excellent.
48. Haggard : looking tired or worried.
49. Idle : not wanting to work hard; lazy.
50. Midway : in the middle of a period of time or between two places.
There are some kinds of word formation such as SUFFIXES and PREFIXES.
Suffixes is a letter or group of letters that you add at the end of a word, and that changes the meaning of the word or the way it is used can change the word-class and the meaning of the word.
A Handful of Suffixes
|able, ible||able to be, capable of being||pourable, drinkable, readable, washable, curable, visible, flexible, collectible|
|ance, ancy||state of, process of||performance, reliance, defiance, radiance, acceptance, ascendancy, discrepancy, infancy|
|Dom||condition, office, state||kingdom, freedom, wisdom, sheikdom, fiefdom, sheikdom|
|Ee||one who receives||payee, mortgagee, employee, appointee, abductee, examinee, referee, refugee|
|er, or||one who does [the verb]||driver, hiker, reader, manager, polisher, speaker, counselor, author, creator, director, sculptor|
|Ful||filled with||frightful, delightful, wonderful, cupful, wakeful, bashful, bountiful, beautiful, cheerful, colorful, dreadful, fateful|
|Ify||to make into||purify, deify, simplify, clarify, petrify|
|Ification||process of making into||purification, deification, simplifiction, clarification, petrification|
|Ish||the nature of, resembling||Cornish, Irish, bookish, freakish, foolish, boorish, selfish, sluggish, priggish|
|ism||doctrine, system, characteristic quality||capitalism, heroism, optimism, skepticism, realism, patriotism, communism, idealism, conservatism|
|ist||one who performs; an adherent of an ism||tympanist, cellist, idealist, communist, realist, moralist, pharamacist, pragmatist|
|ize||to make into||rationalize, normalize, realize, capitalize|
|ization||the process of making into||rationalization, normalization, realization, capitalization|
|less||Without||loveless, fearless, worthless, nameless, baseless, bottomless, effortless, friendless, noiseless, harmless|
a. common noun suffixes :
ü noun + er/or are used for the person who do an activity or a particular job.
For example :
1. Projector : a piece of equipment that projects pictures or films onto a screen or wall
2. Hiker : person who spending the time for hiking
3. Sculptor : a person who makes figures or objects
4. Counselor : a person whose job is to give advice
5. Grater : a kitchen tool that is used for cutting food into small pieces by rubbing it across its rough surface
ü noun + er/ee can contrast with each other meaning (person who does something/receives or experiences the action).
For example :
1. Employer : a person or company that employs other people
2. Employee : a person who works for somebody.
3. Sender : a person who sends something.
4. Payee : a person that money, especially a cheque, is paid to :
ü t(ion) is used to make nouns from verbs.
For example :
1. Complication : something that makes a situation hard to understand or to deal with
2. Redemption : the action of being saved from evil.
3. Alteration : a small change in something.
4. Donation : money, etc. that is given to a person or an organization such as a charity, in order to help people or animals in need
5. Admission : the amount of money that you have to pay to enter a place.
ü ist/ism are used for people’s politics, ideology, or profession.
For example :
1. Marxism : the political and economic thought of Karl Marx
2. Journalism : the profession of collecting and writing about news in newspapers and magazines or talking about it on the television or radio
3. Anarchist :
4. Physicist : a person who studies or is an expert in physics.
5. Terrorist :
ü ness is used to make nouns from adjectives.
For example :
1. Goodness : the quality of being good
2. Readiness : the state of being ready or prepared.
3. Forgetfulness :
4. Weakness : a fault or lack of strength.
5. Happiness :
b. adjective suffix :
ü verbs + able/ible means “can be done “.
For example :
1. Drinkable : can be drunk
2. Washable : that can be washed without being damaged.
3. edible : can be eaten
4. flexible : can be bent
5. forgivable : that can be forgiven.
6. visible : that can be seen or noticed
ü ise/ize makes verbs from adjectives.
For example :
1. Modernize : to make something suitable for use today using new methods, styles, etc.
2. Commercialise : to try to make money out of something, even if it means spoiling it
3. Industrialise : to develop industries in a country.
4. Organize : to plan or arrange an event, activity, etc.
5. Rationalize : [I, T] to find reasons that explain why you have done sth (perhaps because you do not like the real reason)
2[T] to make a business or a system better organized
d. other suffixes that can help you recognize the word class :
ü ment (nouns)
For example :
1. Excitement : the state of being excited, especially because something interesting is happening or will happen
2. Replacement : exchanging somebody/something for somebody/something that is better or newer
ü ity (nouns)
For example :
ü hood (abstract nouns especially family terms)
For example :
1. Motherhood : the state of being a mother.
2. Neighborhood : a particular part of a town and the people who live there.
3. Childhood : the time when you are a child.
ü ship (abstract nouns especially status)
Foe example :
1. Partnership : he state of being a partner in business.
2. Membership : the people who belong to a group, organization, etc.
ü ive (adjective)
For example :
1. Passive : used about the form of a verb or a sentence when the subject of the sentence is affected by the action of the verb
2. Reductive :
ü al (adjectives)
For example :
1. Brutal : very cruel and/or violent.
2. Legal : allowed by law.
3. Refusal : saying or showing that you will not do, give or accept something.
ü ous (adjectives)
For example :
1. Outrageous : that makes you very angry or shocked.
2. Furious : very angry.
ü ful (adjectives)
For example :
1. Hopeful : making you think that something good will happen
2. Useful : having some practical use; helpful.
ü less (adjectives)
For example :
1. Harmless : not able or not likely to cause damage or injury; safe
2. Cloudless : clear; without any clouds.
ü ify (verbs)
For example :
1. Purify : to remove dirty or harmful substances from something.
2. Terrify : to frighten somebody very much.
Prefixes is a letter or group of letters that you put at the beginning of a word to change its meaning
Root or Prefix
|a, an||not, without||atheist, anarchy, anonymous apathy, aphasia, anemia, atypical, anesthesia|
|ab||away from||absent, abduction, aberrant, abstemious, abnormal, abstract, absorb|
|acro||high, tip, top||acrobat, acrophobia, acronym, acromegaly|
|ad||to, toward||admit, addition, advertisement, adherent, admonish, address, adhesive, adept, adjust|
|alt||High||altitude, altimiter, alto, contralto, altocumulus|
|ambul||to walk||ambulatory, amble, ambulance, somnambulist, perambulate, preamble|
|ante||Before||anteroom, antebellum, antedate antecedent, antediluvian|
|anti, ant||against, opposite||antisocial, antiseptic, antithesis, antibody, antichrist, antinomies, antifreeze, antipathy, antigen, antibiotic, antidote, antifungal, antidepressant|
|audi||to hear||audience, auditory, audible, auditorium, audiovisual, audition, audiobook|
|auto||Self||automobile, automatic, autograph, autonomous, autoimmune, autopilot, autobiography|
|be||thoroughly||bedecked, besmirch, besprinkled, begrudge, begrime, belie, bemoan|
|bell||War||belligerent, antebellum, bellicose, rebel|
|bene||good, well||benefactor, beneficial, benevolent, benediction, beneficiary, benefit|
|bi||Two||bicycle, bifocals, biceps, billion, binary, bivalve, bimonthly, bigamy, bimetal, biathlete, bicarbonate|
|cede, ceed, cess||to go, to yield||succeed, proceed, precede, recede, secession, exceed, succession, excess|
|chron||Time||chronology, chronic, chronicle, chronometer, anachronism|
|cide, cis||to kill, to cut||fratricide, suicide, incision, excision, circumcision, precise, concise, precision|
|circum||Around||circumnavigate, circumflex, circumstance, circumcision, circumference, circumorbital, circumlocution, circumvent, circumscribe, circulatory|
|clud, clus claus||to close||include, exclude, clause, claustrophobia, enclose, exclusive, reclusive, conclude, preclude|
|con, com||with, together||convene, compress, contemporary, converge, compact, confluence, concatenate, conjoin, combine, convert, compatible, consequence|
|contra, counter||against, opposite||contradict, counteract, contravene, contrary, counterspy, contrapuntal, contraband|
|cred||to believe||credo, credible, credence, credit, credential, credulity, incredulous, creed, incredible|
|commun||to share||commune, community, communism, communicable, communication, commonality, incommunicado|
|cycl||circle, wheel||bicycle, cyclical, cycle, encliclical, motorcycle, tricycle, cyclone|
|de||from, down, away||detach, deploy, derange, deodorize, devoid, deflate, degenerate, deice, descend, derail, depress, depart, decompose, destruction|
|dei, div||God, god||divinity, divine, deity, divination, deify|
|demo||people||democracy, demagogue, epidemic, demographic|
|dia||through, across, between||diameter, diagonal, dialogue, dialect, dialectic, diagnosis, diachronic, diagram, diaphragm|
|dict||speak||predict, verdict, malediction, dictionary, dictate, dictum, diction, indict, contradict|
|dis, dys, dif||away, not, negative||dismiss, differ, disallow, disperse, dissuade, disconnect, dysfunction, disproportion, disrespect, distemper, distaste, disarray, dyslexia|
|duc, duct||to lead, pull||produce, abduct, product, transducer, viaduct, aqueduct, induct, deduct, reduce, induce|
|dyn, dyna||power||dynamic, dynamometer, heterodyne, dynamite, dynamo, dynasty|
|ecto||outside, external||ectomorph, ectoderm, ectoplasm, ectopic, ectothermal|
|endo||inside, withing||endotoxin, endoscope, endogenous|
|equi||equal||equidistant, equilateral, equilibrium, equinox, equitable, equation, equator|
|e, ex||out, away, from||emit, expulsion, exhale, exit, express, exclusive, enervate, exceed, explosion|
|exter, extra||outside of||external, extrinsic, exterior, extraordinary, extrabiblical, extracurricular, extrapolate, extraneous, exterminator, extract, extradite, extraterrestrial, extrasensory, extravagant, extreme|
|flu, flux||flow||effluence, influence, effluvium, fluctuate, confluence, reflux, influx|
|flect, flex||to bend||flexible, reflection, deflect, circumflex, inflection, reflex|
|graph, gram||to write||polygraph, grammar, biography, graphite, telegram, autograph, lithograph, historiography, graphic, electrocardiogram, monogram|
|hetero||other||heterodox, heterogeneous, heterosexual, heterodyne|
|homo||same||homogenized, homosexual, homonym, homophone|
|hyper||over, above||hyperactive, hypertensive, hyperbolic, hypersensitive, hyperventilate, hyperkinetic, hyperlink, hypertext, hypersonic, hypertrophy|
|hypo||below, less than||hypotension, hypodermic, hypoglycemia, hypoallergenic, hypothermia, hypothesis|
|in, im||not||inviolate, innocuous, intractable, innocent, impregnable, impossible|
|infra||beneath||infrared, infrastructure, infrasonic|
|inter, intro||between||international, intercept, intermission, interoffice, internal, intermittent, introvert, introduce|
|intra||within, into||intranet, intracranial, intravenous, intramural, intramuscular, intraocular|
|jac, ject||to throw||reject, eject, project, trajectory, interject, dejected, inject, ejaculate|
|mal||bad, badly||malformation, maladjusted, dismal, malady, malcontent, malfeasance, maleficent, malevolent, malice, malaria, malfunction, malignant|
|mega||great, million||megaphone, megalomaniac, megabyte, megalopolis|
|meso||middle||mesomorph, mesoamerica, mesosphere|
|meta||beyond, change||metaphor, metamorphosis, metabolism, metahistorical, metainformation, metacognitive|
|meter||measure||perimeter, micrometer, ammeter, multimeter, altimeter, geometry, kilometer|
|micro||small||microscope, microprocessor, microfiche, micrometer, micrograph|
|mis||bad, badly||misinform, misinterpret, mispronounce, misnomer, mistake, misogynist|
|mit, miss||to send||transmit, permit, missile, missionary, remit, admit, missive, mission|
|morph||shape||polymorphic, morpheme, amorphous, metamorphosis, morphology, morphing|
|multi||many||multitude, multipartite, multiply, multipurpose, multicolored, multimedia, multinational|
|neo||new||neologism, neonate, neoclassic, neophyte|
|non||not||nonferrous, nonabrasive, nondescript, nonfat, nonfiction, nonprofit, nonsense, nonentity|
|omni||all||omnipotent, omnivorous, omniscient, omnibus, omnirange, omnipresent|
|para||beside||paraprofessional, paramedic, paraphrase, parachute, paralegal, parallel, comparison|
|per||through, intensive||permit, perspire, perforate, persuade, perceive, perfect, permit, perform|
|peri||around||periscope, perimeter, perigee, periodontal|
|phon||sound||telephone, phonics, phonograph, phonetic, homophone, microphone|
|phot||light||photograph, photosynthesis, photon|
|poly||many||polytheist, polygon, polygamy, polymorphous|
|port||to carry||porter, portable, report, transportation, deport, import, export|
|re||back, again||report, realign, retract, revise, regain, reflect, rename, restate, recombine, recalculate, redo|
|retro||backwards||retrorocket, retrospect, retrogression, retroactive|
|sanct||holy||sanctify, sanctuary, sanction, sanctimonious, sacrosanct|
|scrib, script||to write||inscription, prescribe, proscribe, manuscript, conscript, scribble, scribe|
|sect, sec||cut||intersect, transect, dissect, secant, section|
|semi||half||semifinal, semiconscious, semiannual, semimonthly, semicircle|
|spect||to look||inspect, spectator, circumspect, retrospect, prospect, spectacle|
|sub||under, below||submerge, submarine, substandard, subnormal, subvert, subdivision, submersible, submit|
|super, supra||above||superior, suprarenal, superscript, supernatural, supercede, superficial, superhero, superimpose|
|syn||together||synthesis, synchronous, syndicate, synergy, snyopsis, syncretism|
|tele||distance, from afar||television, telephone, telegraph, telemetry, telepathy|
|theo, the||God||theology, theist, polytheist, pantheism, atheist|
|therm, thermo||heat||thermal, thermometer, thermocouple, thermodynamic, thermoelectric|
|tract||to drag, draw||attract, tractor, traction, extract, retract, protract, detract, subtract, contract, intractable|
|trans||across||transoceanic, transmit, transport, transducer|
|un||not||uncooked, unharmed, unintended, unhappy|
|veh, vect||to carry||vector, vehicle, convection, vehement|
|vert, vers||to turn||convert, revert, advertise, versatile, vertigo, invert, reversion, extravert, introvert|
|vita||life||vital, vitality, vitamins, revitalize|
|mono, uni||one||monopoly, monotype, monologue, mononucleosis, monorail, monotheist, unilateral, universal, unity, unanimous, uniform|
|bi, di||two||divide, diverge, diglycerides, bifurcate, biweekly, bivalve, biannual, billion|
|tri||three||triangle, trinity, trilateral, triumvirate, tribune, trilogy, tricycle, trillion|
|quat, quad||four||quadrangle, quadruplets, quaternary, quarter, quadrillion|
|quint, penta||five||quintet, quintuplets, pentagon, pentane, pentameter, quintillion|
|hex, ses, sex||six||hexagon, hexameter, sestet, sextuplets, sextillion|
|sept||seven||septet, septennial, septillion|
|oct||eight||octopus, octagon, octogenarian, octave, octillion|
|non||nine||nonagon, nonagenarian, nonillion|
|dec||ten||decimal, decade, decalogue, decimate, decillion|
|cent||hundred||centennial, century, centipede, centillion|
|mill, kilo||thousand (10^3)||millennium, kilobyte, kiloton|
|mega||million (10^6)||megabyte, megaton, megaflop|
|giga||billion (10^9)||gigabyte, gigaflop|
|tera||trillion (10^12)||terabyte, teraflop|
|milli||thousandth (10^-3)||millisecond, milligram, millivolt|
|micro||millionth (10^-6)||microgram, microvolt|
|nano||billionth (10^-9)||nanosecond, nanobucks|
|pico||trillionth (10^-12)||picofarad, picocurie|
|atto||quintillionth (10^-18)||attosecond, attometer|
a. prefix + adjective becomes a negative meaning.
1. Unjust : not fair or deserved.
2. Unhappy : not satisfied or pleased.
1. Immature : not fully grown or developed.
2. Impatient : not able to stay calm and wait for sth.
3. Impartial : not supporting one person or group more than another; fair
4. Improbable : not likely to be true or to happen.
1. Illegible :. difficult or impossible to read.
2. Illiterate : not able to read or write OPP literate
1. Irreplaceable : cannot be replaced.
2. Irreversible : cannot be stopped or changed.
1. Disloyal : not supporting somebody, country, etc.
2. Dishonest : cannot trust.
1. Internal : only before a noun) of or on the inside (of a place, person or object) ; happening or existing inside a particular organization; an internal exam (= one arranged and marked inside a particular school or college) • an internal police inquiry; (used about political or economic affairs) inside a country; not abroad
2. Insert : put into or between two things
3. Income : the money you receive regularly as payment for your work or as interest on money you have saved, etc.
4. Inedible : not suitable to be eaten.
b. Prefix + verb to form the opposite of verbs; otherwise, it used to reverse the action of the verb.
1. Undo : to destroy the effect of something that has already happened
2. Unfold : to open out something that was folded
3. Unveil : to show something new to the public for the first time.
4. Unzip : pulling on the device
1. Dismount : to get off something that you ride
2. Disappear : impossible to see or to find
3. Disprove : something is not true.
c. prefix + other verb for the specific meaning
ü anti means against
1. Anti-War : against the war to be happen.
2. Antibiotic : a medicine which is used for destroying bacteria and curing infections.
3. Antisocial : harmful or annoying to other people.
ü auto means of or by oneself
1. Autograph : the signature of a famous person.
2. Auto-Pilot : automatic pilot.
3. Autobiography: the story of a person’s life written by that person
ü bi means two or twice
1. Bicycle : two wheels
2. Bilingual : having or using two languages.
3. Biannual : two years
ü ex means former
1. Ex-wife : was form a wife of a husband.
2. Ex-president : was lead the republic.
ü ex means out of
1. Extract : take something out with difficult.
2. Exhale : breathe out the air, smoke, etc.
ü Micro means small
1. Microwave : a short electric wave that is used for sending radio messages and for cooking food
2. Microscopic : too small to be seen without a microscope
ü mono means one/ single
1. Monotonous : never changing and therefore boring.
2. Monologue : a long speech by one person, for example in a play
3. Monopoly : he control of an industry or service by only one company; a type of goods or a service that is controlled in this way
4. monorail : a railway in which the train runs on a single track, usually high above the ground
ü Multi means many
1. Multi-National : many national
2. Multi-Racial : many races
ü over means too much
1. Overdo : to use or do too much of something.
2. Oversleep : to sleep longer than you should have done.
ü post means after
2. Postgraduate : a person who is doing further studies at a university after taking his/her first degree
ü pro means in favour of
1. Pro-Revolutionary : agreement to the person who starts or supports action to try to change the government of a country, especially by using violent action
2. Proactive : controlling a situation by making things happen rather than waiting for things to happen and then reacting to them
ü pseudo means false
1. Pseudo-Scientific : mistake in connected with or involving science
ü re means again or back
1. Rewind : to make a video, tape go backwards
2. Reform : to change a system, the law, etc. in order to make it better
ü Semi means half
2. Semi-Detached : joined to another house with a shared wall on one side forming a pair of houses
ü sub means under
1. Subway : a railway system under the ground.
2. Submarine : a type of ship that can travel under the water as well as on the surface
3. Submerge : to go or make something go under water
ü under means not enough
1. Under-Worked : workless
2. Underused : not use enough
3. Undercooked : to not cook food for long enough.
1. Misunderstand : to understand something wrongly.
2. Misinform : to give somebody the wrong information.
3. Misinterpret : to understand something wrongly
1. Harris, Robert. 13th October 1997. Word Roots and Prefixes. Virtual Salt.
2. McCarthy and O’Dell. 2001. English Vocabulary in Use. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
3. Oxford Word-power Genie.